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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2577\margr4209\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2577\margrsxn4209\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri2\sb0\sa0\tx3293 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw12\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs19 TAXES : LAW{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-15 61}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri26\sb238\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 m$ \i0 located in the town \i (pura). \i0 Besides, there were \expndtw0 )ther halls to entertain guests and to serve as assembly \expndtw4 louses \i (sabha). \i0 Loyal and honest men were appointed \expndtw5 :o guard the people in towns \i (nagard) \i0 and villages \i\expndtw-3 \\grdma) \i0 from thieves and robbers, and they had to make \expndtw-4 *ood the loss suffered by a person if the culprits remained \expndtw6 intraced and stolen property could not be recovered,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li2\fi0\ri0\sb139\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex82\expndtw-4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs26 Taxes}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li5\fi367\ri2\sb101\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 For purposes of administration and maintenance of \expndtw-2 :he royal state, people paid taxes, which varied from one-\expndtw7 sixth to one-tenth of the produce of land. The king \expndtw0 :ould also, according to Gautama, take "one day's work \expndtw-2 per month from artisans, one-twentieth on merchandise, \expndtw7 ^ne-fiftieth on cattle and gold, and one-sixtieth on \expndtw0 toots, fruits, flowers, herbs, honey, meat, grass, and irewood."}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li10\fi398\ri10\sb535\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The fountain of law was not the king; its source \expndtw-4 was the body of the sacred texts \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  the Vedas \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  and the \expndtw0 tradition and practice of those who knew the Vedas\super 1\nosupersub . \expndtw3 Further, it is stated that the administration of justice \expndtw5 should be regulated by "the Vedas, Institutes of the \expndtw3 sacred Law, the Vedangas, the \i Puranas, \i0 the (special) \expndtw4 laws of countries, castes, families (not being opposed \expndtw-1 to the sacred records), the usages of cultivators, traders, \expndtw2 herdsmen, money-lenders, and artisans/\super 32\nosupersub  Thus, the \expndtw-2 customs and usages of the various groups \i (vargas) \i0 and \expndtw2 guilds \i (\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'a3\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 re$s) \i0 were respected by the king.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li14\fi408\ri0\sb2\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The \i Dharmasutras \i0 also throw some light on the \expndtw1 laws of inheritance and the status of women, who, it \expndtw3 appears, could not, on their own account, offer sacri\-\expndtw6 fices or inherit property. Another unwholesome fea-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li353\fi0\ri0\sb221\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs19 1\nosupersub  \i0 Gautama, \i Dbarmasutra\sub 9\nosupersub  \i0 XI, 19-21.}\par }